Read Das Kapital - Capital: Critique of Political Economy: 2 by Karl Marx Free Online
Book Title: Das Kapital - Capital: Critique of Political Economy: 2|
The author of the book: Karl Marx
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 319 KB
Edition: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Date of issue: July 20th 2012
ISBN 13: 9781478275459
Read full description of the books Das Kapital - Capital: Critique of Political Economy: 2:Capital 2, subtitled The Process of Circulation of Capital, was prepared by Friedrich Engels from notes left by Marx & published in 1885. It's divided into three parts: The Metamorphoses of Capital & Their Circuits, The Turnover of Capital, & The Reproduction & Circulation of the Aggregate Social Capital. Here the main ideas behind the marketplace are to be found: how value & surplus-value are realized. Its dramatis personae, not so much the worker & the industrialist as in Volume 1, but rather the money owner & lender, the wholesale merchant, the trader & the entrepreneur or 'functioning capitalist.' Moreover, workers appear in Volume 2, essentially as buyers of consumer goods &, therefore, as sellers of the commodity labor power, rather than producers of value & surplus-value (altho, this latter quality, established in Volume 1, remains the solid foundation on which the whole of the unfolding analysis is based). Reading Volume 2 is of great significance to understanding the theoretical construction of Marx' whole argument. Marx himself precisely clarified this place, in a letter sent to Engels on 4/30/1868: 'In Book 1...we content ourselves with the assumption that if in the self-expansion process £100 becomes £110, the latter will find already in existence in the market the elements into which it will change once more. But now we investigate the conditions under which these elements are found at hand, namely the social intertwining of the different capitals, of the component parts of capital & of revenue (=s).' This intertwining, conceived as a movement of commodities & of money, enabled Marx to work out at least the essential elements, if not the definitive form of a coherent theory of the trade cycle, based upon the inevitability of periodic disequilibrium between supply & demand under the capitalist mode of production (Mandel, 1978, Intro to Vol. 2 of Capital). Volume 2 has indeed been not only a 'sealed book', but also a forgotten one. To a large extent, it remains so to this day. Part 3 is the point of departure for a topic given its Marxist treatment later in detail by Rosa Luxemburg etc.
Read information about the authorIn 1818, Karl Marx, descended from a long line of rabbis, was born in Prussian Rhineland. Marx's' father converted to Protestantism shortly before Karl's birth. Educated at the Universities of Bonn, Jena, and Berlin, Marx founded the Socialist newspaper Vorwarts in 1844 in Paris. After being expelled from France at the urging of the Prussian government, which "banished" Marx in absentia, Marx studied economics in Brussels. He and Engels founded the Communist League in 1847 and published the Communist Manifesto. After the failed revolution of 1848 in Germany, in which Marx participated, he eventually wound up in London. Marx worked as foreign correspondent for several U.S. publications. His Das Kapital came out in three volumes (1867, 1885 and 1894). Marx organized the International and helped found the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Although Marx was not religious, Bertrand Russell later remarked, "His belief that there is a cosmic force called Dialectical Materialism which governs human history independently of human volitions, is mere mythology" (Portraits from Memory, 1956). Marx once quipped, "All I know is that I am not a Marxist" (according to Engels in a letter to C. Schmidt; see Who's Who in Hell by Warren Allen Smith). D. 1883.
Marx began co-operating with Bruno Bauer on editing Hegel's Philosophy of Religion in 1840. Marx was also engaged in writing his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature, which he completed in 1841. It was described as "a daring and original piece of work in which Marx set out to show that theology must yield to the superior wisdom of philosophy": the essay was controversial, particularly among the conservative professors at the University of Berlin. Marx decided, instead, to submit his thesis to the more liberal University of Jena, whose faculty awarded him his PhD in April 1841. As Marx and Bauer were both atheists, in March 1841 they began plans for a journal entitled Archiv des Atheismus (Atheistic Archives), but it never came to fruition.
Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.
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